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17-Oct-2016 17:04

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Biostratigraphy originated in the early 19th century, where geologists recognised that the correlation of fossil assemblages between rocks of similar type but different age decreased as the difference in age increased.The method was well-established before Charles Darwin explained the mechanism behind it - evolution.Biostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them.Usually the aim is correlation, demonstrating that a particular horizon in one geological section represents the same period of time as another horizon at some other section.Although the basic rules of biostratigraphic zonation were established in the late 18th to early 19th centuries in Europe (ultimately resulting in the development of the Relative Geologic Time Scale), the implementation of biostratigraphic techniques was in use in the United States during the early to mid-1800's.Some of the first geological surveys to be completed in the United States included those of the New York State Geological Survey.Correlation of tops is the most rapid and economical biostratigraphic technique and is the one most commonly used.Figure 1 shows how the overlap of species' ranges (between inception and extinction) is used to define zones.

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The overlap of species extinctions and inceptions allows the development of range zones (see figure below), which can be correlated from site to site.Species extinctions, often referred to as “tops,” are used as horizons of correlation.The first downhole occurrence (“ ” in the illustration below) in a well section is the datum most commonly used.The fossils are useful because sediments of the same age can look completely different because of local variations in the sedimentary environment.

For example, one section might have been made up of clays and marls while another has more chalky limestones, but if the fossil species recorded are similar, the two sediments are likely to have been laid down at the same time.These surveys focused not only on New York's geological resources, but also emphasized the establishment of spatial and temporal relationships of stratigraphic units based on both lithologic and paleontologic composition.